HIV Testing Uptake Among the Household Contacts of Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis Index Cases in Eight Countries


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International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease


The household contacts (HHCs) of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) index cases are at high risk of tuberculous infection and disease progression, particularly if infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV testing is important for risk assessment and clinical management.

This was a cross-sectional, multi-country study of adult MDR-TB index cases and HHCs. All adult and child HHCs were offered HIV testing if never tested or if HIV-negative >1 year previously when last tested. We measured HIV testing uptake and used logistic regression to evaluate predictors.

A total of 1007 HHCs of 284 index cases were enrolled in eight countries. HIV status was known at enrolment for 226 (22%) HHCs; 39 (4%) were HIV-positive. HIV testing was offered to 769 (98%) of the 781 remaining HHCs; 544 (71%) agreed to testing. Of 535 who were actually tested, 26 (5%) were HIV-infected. HIV testing uptake varied by site (median 86%, range 0-100%; P < 0.0001), and was lower in children aged <18 years than in adults (59% vs. 78%; adjusted for site P < 0.0001).

HIV testing of HHCs of MDR-TB index cases is feasible and high-yield, with 5% testing positive. Reasons for low test uptake among children and at specific sites—including sites with high HIV prevalence—require further study to ensure all persons at risk for HIV are aware of their status.


Opollo VS, Wu X, Hughes MD, Swindells S, Gupta A, Hesseling A, Churchyard G, Kim S, Lando R, Dawson R, Mave V, Mendoza A, Gonzales P, Kumarasamy N, von Groote-Bidlingmaier F, Conradie F, Shenje J, Fontain SN, Garcia-Prats A, Asmelash A, Nedsuwan S, Mohapi L, Mngqibisa R, Garcia Ferreira AC, Okeyo E, Naini L, Jones L, Smith B, Shah NS. HIV testing uptake among the household contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis index cases in eight countries. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2018 Dec 1;22(12):1443-1449. doi: 10.5588/ijtld.18.0108.